It reports some of the flavour of the period when theatre architecture was rediscovering its past in a search to establish its future. Read more Read less. Learn more. Product description Product Description In the post-war world of the s and 60s, the format of theatre space became a matter for a debate that aroused passions of an intensity unknown before or since.
Not Enabled. No customer reviews. It's also an excellent way to expand the range of voices we consider part of the classical canon. In Venus, an African woman is enticed to Europe with promises of fame and fortune, but ends up trapped between serving as a carnival freak show and a subject in a medical amphitheater, an exhibition in both life and death. Grounding her virtuosic command of language in a recognizable time and place, Parks creates a period piece rich with implications for our contemporary culture.
In an era when stories about race, gender, sexuality and political liberty dominate the conversation, Parks illuminates them in all their intersectionality. Dreamlandia: By Octavio Solis March 18, When a young Mexican woman and her brother cross the Rio Grande to find their father, they instead encounter a young man who has grown up alone, imprisoned on an island.
Soon, all are thrust into a world where dream and reality are inseparable.
Bush era, Dreamlandia's observations about Mexican-American relations, immigration and capitalism have only become more prescient. With aspects of magic realism that connect to Latinx culture and history, Solis's piece dives into the borderlands between seductive illusion and crushing reality. Kennedy and Adrienne Kennedy. In Arlington, Virginia during the s, a highly educated black man was viciously beaten by police after being pulled over for a broken taillight, and the disturbing incident led Adrienne Kennedy and her son to collaborate on an autobiographical drama.
Sleep Deprivation Chamber reads now like a premonition of today's pervasive climate of violence, masterfully interweaving a suspenseful docudrama with the black experience of 20th-century America. The young Royal Society was engaged in a variety of projects involving archaeology, ancient history and antiquarianism, especially before the establishment of the Society of Antiquaries in Archaeology as a discipline was building its own synthetic methodology made of organized findings, more distinctive analytical rigour, critical insights and comparative approaches.
In parallel with this, a major contribution towards the development of antiquarianism came from Oxford. The circle of orientalists that developed there was crucial in fostering erudition around Arabic and Hebrew cultures. The University of Oxford thrived throughout the seventeenth century as a major centre of oriental studies. Huntington was a graduate of Merton College and a major contributor to the Bodleian Library, to which he donated many of the findings and documents he brought back from Syria.
Belonging to the same generation as Huntington were Halifax's contacts when he was in Aleppo: Bernard and Smith. He was an extremely erudite arabist and was both a prolific figure within the Oxford circle of orientalists and a qualified mathematician—he succeeded Sir Christopher Wren as Salivian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford in and was elected FRS in the same year.
He was in Constantinople between and as Chaplain of the Levant Company.
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Smith went back to London in and his reports on Constantinople were later published in Philosophical Transactions. The British Levant Company itself was a crucial element for the establishment of stable scholarly channels of communication between Britain and the Orient. Members of the company had been conducting investigations into the historical architecture of the Middle East since the s. The productivity and prosperity of the Levant Company during the second half of the seventeenth century was surely a major component for the intellectual thriving of Arabic and Hebrew studies that existed at Oxford, and it certainly made an impact on the Royal Society as well.
The illustration presented with the travel diaries already had a pivotal role in informing the public about the city and in involving the reader in its discovery. This might have been G. For this reason it has been assumed that Hofstede was part of the expedition, and that he was in fact the author of both the engraving and the painting.
By looking at the drawing one can then geographically trace the itinerary of the company and relate Halifax's written descriptions to the graphical representation of the city. These two elements certainly worked together in addressing the reader in a very engaging way, stressing the material substance and features of Palmyra.
The drawing published in Philosophical Transactions was not the only one produced by the company during their stay in Palmyra. It is difficult to determine to which buildings these drawings were referring. The surviving illustration still has a crucial role in informing the public about the rediscovered city.
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As mentioned in the previous section, the intention of these kinds of report was the establishment of an authority and the codification of standards and values for the transmission of original and distant information. Images displayed and discussed at the Royal Society were treated as an integral part of the knowledge that was produced by textual evidence. The process that led from the production of an image to its dissemination through the system of knowledge-making at the Society expressed a collective intention to authorize and consolidate that knowledge.
It should also be noted at this point that the late seventeenth century saw the rise of iconographies as primary references for both the production of early modern scientific knowledge and the interpretation of historical evidence. Through both writing and drawing, Halifax, together with Lanoy and Goodyear, were able to picture publicly the city of Palmyra for the first time in history, contributing to the development of a mode of communication and representation that was still very much in the making.
With their personal and passionate documents these travellers were able to produce authentic—and therefore authoritative—knowledge. Halifax's approach had the crucial goal of establishing authority and veracity through the accumulation of matters of fact and circumstantial information about Palmyra. In addition to rich descriptions, not without ironic comments and personal notes, the company also attentively collected both inscriptions and measurements. Copies of inscriptions bore with them crucial significance.
Transcribing ancient writings, translating them and relating them to contemporary religious, social and political knowledge was the most effective and reliable way of bringing ancient facts to the public attention. Such evidence taken from columns and walls occupy the greatest part of Halifax's account.
In this sense, his approach was essentially that of an early modern epigraphist. Both in his relation and in the travel diaries of Lanoy and Goodyear, entire pages were dedicated to transcribing almost two dozen ancient inscriptions, analysing the language and deducing facts about the history of Palmyra. Most of these inscriptions were in either Latin or Greek, but Halifax also reported one that was in a language still unknown.businesspodden.com/invertir-con-xito-en-bolsa.php
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The existence of this alphabet had already been determined earlier in the century, when Jan Gruter published an example of it in This was the first dead language to be uncovered through inscriptions. Inscription in the Palmyrene alphabet. From W. For Halifax, the practice of recording inscriptions was indeed a powerful way to produce accountable information.
The epigraphic tradition towards inscriptions had its roots in Renaissance scholarship. Sixteenth-century scholars were already trying to establish this primary material as historical evidence, testing its reliability and questioning its reproducibility. But this attitude was already changing during the seventeenth century as antiquarianism was gaining its own disciplinary recognition.
Scholars such as John Aubrey established a new kind of investigation, made of comparative analysis of material sources, observed for their contextual values. As Alain Schnapp suggests, through the second half of the seventeenth century objects had gained a substantial importance over textual sources as essential material evidence for the uncovering and understanding of historical facts.
As the Secretary of the Society and editor of the journal, Hans Sloane, commented when concluding the reports on Palmyra:. The Philosophical Reader is desired to excuse our breaking-in upon the Subject of these Tracts , by intermixing Historical and Philological Matters, as also our exceeding the bounds of an Extract : but we hope the Curiosity of the Subject, joyned to the Desires of the Royal Society , may make an easie apology suffice.
The other way that the company could report factual information was through measurements. This, however, was more problematic. Given the size and extent of the ruins, the quantity of data necessary for reproducing the buildings with some level of completeness was beyond their capacity and, most probably, their intentions. Nevertheless, Halifax's relation featured rich numeric information. To this end, we know that the company had with them a few surveying instruments.
The quadrant could also be used efficiently to measure the height of a wall or column through the angular ratio between their base and their summit. Today we know that only some of the numbers mentioned by Halifax were accurate. Moreover, from the way in which they were presented in the text, it would have been extremely difficult at the time to use this short survey to reproduce the buildings.
Several of them are still very difficult to place, understand and contextualize today. These measurements, rather than an attempt at a rigid survey, seemed essentially instrumental and worked towards a perceptive and authorial relation of the city. Not unlike the epigraphist's approach towards inscriptions, the surveyor's approach towards measurements was adopted here to bring realism, factuality and therefore accountability to the whole story.
On the one hand, fragments of historical facts were recorded from the few inscriptions attentively copied in the reports; on the other, recorded measures gave impressions and glimpses of the grandeur and scale of the city. As these were the only reproducible results available to be transcribed and transported from Palmyra to London, the importance of these words and numbers, although inevitably incomplete, was crucial.
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All this mirrors the Royal Society's attitude towards the study of nature and the collection of knowledge from around the world. The descriptive and circumstantial character of these reports was focused primarily on the observable.
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The Royal Society therefore welcomed these extensive reports from Palmyra with an appreciation that was led by their interests in exactness and precision. As for the travel diaries of Lanoy and Goodyear and the drawings, they were personally presented by the authors to the Royal Society a few weeks later. Indeed, after the publication of the Relation and Travel Journals, several other studies on the ancient city were soon proposed to the public attention, starting from Philosophical Transactions.
Edmund Halley famously dedicated a whole article to the history of Palmyra. These last remarks became a highly valuable source for the decipherment of the Palmyrene language during the following century, making Halley a crucial reference for this particular matter. Halley had an ongoing interest in mapping and surveying as well as in astronomy. He was also working on a project of mapping cities and regions of the Roman world on a large scale, using astronomical methods. His idea was in fact that of using historical data to inform modern natural philosophy, giving to ancient texts an everlasting and prominent role in shaping scientific knowledge.
All the documents produced on Palmyra—Halifax's letter, the diaries, the drawing and Halley's paper—were printed together in the two consecutive issues of Philosophical Transactions. A few English gentlemen were said to have seen marble or porphyry columns, temples still intact, tombs and Greek and Latin inscriptions. Coenraad Calckberner, the Dutch Consul in Aleppo, had sent a copy of the documents to Gisbert Cuper in July , together with coins, other artefacts and a painting depicting the ruins of Palmyra. In fact, Cuper was in possession of additional information and original material.
After having resigned his chaplaincy in Aleppo in November , William Halifax arrived back in England in early He was unable to find the original, but he was helped by Octavian Pulleyn, former printer to the Royal Society during the s, who joined the search in March Pulleyn then sent a letter to London with a copy of the inscription he found in Rome. Publications of Halifax's account on Palmyra also continued during the eighteenth century.
In the archaeologist Thomas Kerrich found in Rome a manuscript copy of Halifax's relation—possibly left by him during his journey. The manuscript was then given to Albert Hartshorne and published in in Palestine Exploration Quarterly. This transcription included a description of the journey to and from Palmyra. The description itself differs slightly from that published in Philosophical Transactions but most notably it included several more inscriptions in both Greek and Palmyrene. Indeed, the archaeological legacy of Palmyra started in Philosophical Transactions and had a powerful echo throughout the following centuries, fostering further research and archaeological discoveries.
It is probably fair to say that the accounts published in Philosophical Transactions became a symbol for the rediscovered city. For instance, the drawing was copied and reprinted in a number of travel books, often—but not necessarily—together with the entire account. The book dealt extensively with the cultural, political and social history of the city and featured some observations on the inscriptions found by Halifax and already commented upon by Halley. Seller's book also included a reproduction of the large engraving. A few years later, in , Bernard, Smith and Huntington—all directly involved in the making and dissemination of the first discovery of the city—published a short pamphlet on the inscriptions found by the company in Palmyra.
From the turn of the century, Palmyra became more and more present in travel accounts, architectural publications and archaeological studies: from Le Bruyn's Voyage au Levant to Fischer von Erlach's renowned Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture , first published in , to Robert Wood's celebrated The Ruines of Palmyra Halifax's account of Palmyra was therefore considered to be a truly unique achievement. With Wood's Ruines the city became the symbol of the British conquest of the neoclassical architectural language. When William Halifax decided to reach the city of Palmyra—as did Huntington before him—his project was intended as a rather independent venture and it is likely that the very idea of this journey was essentially autonomous.
Philosophical Transactions then actively worked in producing, materializing and promoting Palmyra's rediscovered remains, reallocating the value of those independent travels into a collective realm. In this process the Royal Society and its contacts in Oxford served as the key link between London and the Orient. The study of Palmyra was publicly presented as a scientific and philosophical matter, involving astronomers, philosophers, epigraphists, historians and classicists.
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The journey then became a large-scale effort that could even go beyond antiquarian scholarship—as proved by Halley's involvement. This process of intellectual rescaling and international scholarly dissemination needs to be regarded as one of the most influential outcomes of Philosophical Transactions in its early years.
Philosophical Transactions has already been recognized as a crucial editorial undertaking within both the history of communications and the development of the early Royal Society.
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