Results: In an interspecific hybrid between Arabidopsis thaliana and A. Among all differentially expressed A. To understand why parental origin affects gene expression in this system, we compare chromatin packing patterns and epigenomic landscapes in the hybrid and parents. We find that the chromatin of A. However, A. Conclusions: It has long been suspected that genome-scale properties cause the differential responses of genes from one or the other parent to hybridization. Our work links global chromatin compactness and H3K27me3 histone modification to global differences in gene expression in an interspecific Arabidopsis hybrid.
Genomic estimation of complex traits reveals ancient maize adaptation to temperate North America. Swarts, K. People introduced maize to the southwestern US by 4, years ago; full agriculture was established quickly in the lowland deserts but delayed in the temperate uplands for 2, years. We test if the earliest upland maize was adapted for early flowering, a characteristic of modern temperate maize. We sequenced fifteen 1,year old maize cobs from Turkey Pen Shelter in the temperate Southwest. Indirectly validated genomic models predicted that Turkey Pen maize was marginally adapted with respect to flowering, as well as short, tillering and segregating for yellow kernel color.
Temperate adaptation drove modern population differentiation and was selected in situ from ancient standing variation. Validated prediction of polygenic traits improves our understanding of ancient phenotypes and the dynamics of environmental adaption. Xin et al. Pre-mRNA processing not only enhances the diversity encoded in the genome without the need to increase the number of genes but also provides a means to adjust cellular transcript abundance.
Environmental light has a profound effect on transcript accumulation, but how this is partitioned between transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes is largely unknown. Here we describe the identification and characterization of the splicing factor for phytochrome signaling SFPS , which directly interacts with the photoreceptor phytochrome B.
Congratulations, Danelle! The genetic architecture of recurrent segregation distortion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Danelle K. Seymour, Eunyoung Chae, Burak I. Such violations limit intraspecific gene flow and can facilitate the formation of genetic barriers, a first step in speciation. Biased transmission of alleles, or segregation distortion, can result from a number of biological processes including epistatic interactions between incompatible loci, gametic selection, and meiotic drive. Examples of these phenomena have been identified in many species, implying that they are universal, but comprehensive species-wide studies of segregation distortion are lacking.
We have performed a species-wide screen for distorted allele frequencies in over segregating populations of Arabidopsis thaliana using reduced-representation genome sequencing. Biased transmission of alleles was evident in up to a quarter of surveyed populations. Motley, Justin P. To enable the rigorous analysis of such variants, multiple high quality and contiguous genome assemblies are essential. Similarly, while genome assemblies based on short reads have made genomics accessible for non-reference species, these assemblies have limitations due to low contiguity.
Long-read sequencers and long-read technologies have ushered in a new era of genome sequencing where the lengths of reads exceed those of most repeats. However, because these technologies are not only costly, but also time and compute intensive, it has been unclear how scalable they are. We demonstrate that the polished KBS-Mac assembly is highly contiguous with BioNano optical genome maps, and of high per-base quality against a likewise polished Pacific Biosciences long-read assembly.
The approach we implemented took a total of four days at a cost of less than 1, USD for sequencing consumables including instrument depreciation. Check out his presentation on figshare! High-quality de novo assembly of the apple genome and methylome dynamics of early fruit development. Using the latest sequencing and optical mapping technologies, we have produced a high-quality de novo assembly of the apple Malus domestica Borkh.
Repeat sequences, which represented over half of the assembly, provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the uncharacterized regions of a tree genome; we identified a new hyper-repetitive retrotransposon sequence that was over-represented in heterochromatic regions and estimated that a major burst of different transposable elements TEs occurred 21 million years ago. Notably, the timing of this TE burst coincided with the uplift of the Tian Shan mountains, which is thought to be the center of the location where the apple originated, suggesting that TEs and associated processes may have contributed to the diversification of the apple ancestor and possibly to its divergence from pear.
Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation data suggest that epigenetic marks may contribute to agronomically relevant aspects, such as apple fruit development. A great two days in Bad Urach, discussing not only exciting science, but also how we can improve ourselves as scientists, both individually and as a team.
Arabidopsis proteins with a transposon-related domain act in gene silencing. Nature Communications 8, Article number: doi Transposable elements TEs are prevalent in most eukaryotes, and host genomes have devised silencing strategies to rein in TE activity. Phylogenetic analysis suggests not only that MAIL1 and MAIN encode a retrotransposon-related plant mobile domain, but also that host plant mobile domains were captured by DNA transposons during plant evolution.
Our results reveal a role for Arabidopsis proteins with a transposon-related domain in gene silencing. Chlorosis caused by two recessively interacting genes reveals a role of RNA helicase in hybrid breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. Hybrids often differ in fitness from their parents. They may be superior, translating into hybrid vigour or heterosis, but they may also be markedly inferior, because of hybrid weakness or incompatibility. The underlying genetic causes for the latter can often be traced back to genes that evolve rapidly because of sexual or host-pathogen conflicts.
Hybrid weakness may manifest itself only in later generations, in a phenomenon called hybrid breakdown. In addition to chlorosis, a fraction of the F2 plants have defects in leaf and embryo development and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Crosses between accessions from this area and Sha revealed 85 cases of hybrid chlorosis, indicating that the chlorosis causing allele is common in this area.
These results suggest that hybrid breakdown alleles not only occur at rapidly evolving loci, but also at genes that code for conserved processes. Although a rich record of Pleistocene human-associated archaeological assemblages exists, the scarcity of hominin fossils often impedes the understanding of which hominins occupied a site.
Using targeted enrichment of mitochondrial DNA we show that cave sediments represent a rich source of ancient mammalian DNA that often includes traces of hominin DNA, even at sites and in layers where no hominin remains have been discovered. By automation-assisted screening of numerous sediment samples we detect Neandertal DNA in eight archaeological layers from four caves in Eurasia. Our work opens the possibility to detect the presence of hominin groups at sites and in areas where no skeletal remains are found.
Article in German in our local newspaper. Tran, D. When independently evolved immune receptor variants meet in hybrid plants, they can activate immune signaling in the absence of non-self recognition. DM1 and DM2d each resides in a multimeric complex in the absence of signaling, with the DM1 complex shifting to higher molecular weight when heteromerizing DM2 variants are present. The activation of the DM1 complex appears to be sensitive to the conformation of the heteromerizing DM2 variant. Autoimmunity triggered by interaction of this NLR pair thus suggests that activity of heteromeric NLR signaling complexes depends on the sum of activation potentials of partner NLRs.
More information and the full ad is here. Genomic basis and evolutionary potential for extreme drought adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because earth is currently experiencing unprecedented climate change, it is important to predict how species will respond to it. However, geographically-explicit predictive studies frequently ignore that species are comprised of genetically diverse individuals that can vary in their degree of adaptation to extreme local environments; properties that will determine the species ability to withstand climate change.
Because an increase in extreme drought events is expected to challenge plant communities with global warming, we carried out a greenhouse experiment to investigate which genetic variants predict surviving an extreme drought event and how those variants are distributed across Eurasian Arabidopsis thaliana individuals. Genetic variants conferring higher drought survival showed signatures of polygenic adaptation, and were more frequently found in Mediterranean and Scandinavian regions. Using geoenvironmental models, we predicted that Central European populations might lag behind in adaptation by the end of the 21st century.
Further analyses showed that a population decline could nevertheless be compensated by natural selection acting efficiently over standing variation or by migration of adapted individuals from populations at the margins of the species distribution. These findings highlight the importance of within-species genetic heterogeneity in facilitating an evolutionary response to a changing climate.
Karsten M. Karsten is a highly renowned scientist who works on one of the key problems for the modern life sciences — efficient computer-based searches in fast-growing datasets. Congratulations, Karsten! A coordinated distributed global evolution experiment to study the Genomics of rapid Evolution in Novel Environments, that will give clues about plant adaptation in a rapidly changing world. In brief, the idea is to sow seed mixtures of ca. Participants will collect plant material during subsequent flowering seasons for pool sequencing to assess allele frequency changes genome-wide.
This will be used to investigate rapid evolution by natural selection across space. Combining this data with previous knowledge of phenotypes as well as with records of environmental variables will help to understand natural selection in an ecological context. You can also find more detailed information, including the latest version of the experimental protocol, on our project website on grene-net.
Their domestication history is characterized by hybridization and gene flow. Amaranth species are annual plants with small genomes and a short generation time, which makes them attractive model organisms for lab and field experiments. Based on genomic data sets and phenotypic data from intra- and interspecific segregating populations the specific project goals are to 1 identify genomic regions with high diversity and footprints of gene flow between species 2 investigate the effects of interspecific vs. We are looking for a highly motivated and creative Ph.
The student will be co-advised by Dr. Karl Schmid University of Hohenheim; evoplant. Registration for the Ph. The University of Hohenheim is an equal opportunity employer. Women and members of minority groups are strongly encouraged to apply. Application deadline: The University of Hohenheim accepts applications via a secure internet site. To the application. We are offering scientists temporary bench or desk space, library access and will help with finding accommodation for US-based scientists who are stranded abroad due to the White House Executive Order "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States" of 27 January, Catoni, M.
Transgenerationally heritable epialleles are defined by the stable propagation of alternative transcriptional states through mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. We interpreted the data in relation to transgenerational epiallelic stability, which allowed us to classify chromosomal targets of epigenetic regulation into i single copy and methylated exclusively at CpGs, readily forming epialleles, and ii transposon?
We provide evidence that DNA sequence features such as density of CpGs and genomic repetitiveness of the loci predispose their susceptibility to epiallelic switching. The importance and predictive power of these genetic features were confirmed by analyses of common epialleles in natural Arabidopsis accessions, epigenetic recombinant inbred lines epiRILs and also verified in rice.
Grimm, D. The ever-growing availability of high quality genotypes for a multitude of species has enabled researchers to explore the underlying genetic architecture of complex phenotypes at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies GWAS. The systematic comparison of results obtained from GWAS of different traits opens up new possibilities, including the analysis of pleiotropic effects.
Other advantages that result from the integration of multiple GWAS are the ability to replicate GWAS signals and to increase statistical power to detect such signals through meta-analyses. The easyGWAS tool supports multiple species, the uploading of private genotype data and summary statistics of existing GWAS, as well as advanced methods for comparing GWAS results across different experiments and datasets in an interactive and user-friendly interface.
We demonstrate the potential of easyGWAS with a case study of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, using flowering and growth-related traits. Rowan, B. A major goal for biologists is to understand the connection between genes and phenotypic traits, and genetic mapping in experimental populations remains a powerful approach for discovering the causal genes underlying phenotypes. For genetic mapping, the process of genotyping was previously a major rate-limiting step. Modern sequencing technology has greatly improved the resolution and speed of genetic mapping by reducing the time, labor, and cost per genotyping marker.
In addition, the ability to perform genotyping-by-sequencing GBS has facilitated large-scale population genetic analyses by providing a simpler way to survey segregating genetic variation in natural populations. Here we present two protocols for GBS, using the Illumina platform, that can be applied to a wide range of genotyping projects in different species. The first protocol is for genotyping a subset of marker positions genome-wide using restriction digestion, and the second is for preparing inexpensive paired-end whole-genome libraries. We discuss the suitability of each approach for different genotyping applications and provide notes for adapting these protocols for use with a liquid-handling robot.
Nam, Y. Although phytohormones such as gibberellins are essential for many conserved aspects of plant physiology and development, plants vary greatly in their responses to these regulatory compounds. Here, we use genetic perturbation of endogenous gibberellin levels to probe the extent of intraspecific variation in gibberellin responses in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana Arabidopsis.
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We find that these accessions vary greatly in their ability to buffer the effects of overexpression of GA20ox1, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme for gibberellin biosynthesis, with substantial differences in bioactive gibberellin concentrations as well as transcriptomes and growth trajectories. These findings demonstrate a surprising level of flexibility in the wiring of regulatory networks underlying hormone metabolism and signalling. Thank you for a wonderful three years in the lab, and we hope you find the time to visit us soon!
The Genetics Society of America GSA Medal is awarded to an individual for outstanding contributions to the field of genetics in the last 15 years. Recipients of the GSA Medal are recognized for elegant and highly meaningful contributions to modern genetics, and exemplify the ingenuity of GSA membership. To the article. Natural genetic variation makes it possible to discover evolutionary changes that have been maintained in a population because they are advantageous. To understand genotype—phenotype relationships and to investigate trait architecture, the existence of both high-resolution genotypic and phenotypic data is necessary.
Arabidopsis thaliana is a prime model for these purposes. This herb naturally occurs across much of the Eurasian continent and North America. Thus, it is exposed to a wide range of environmental factors and has been subject to natural selection under distinct conditions. Full genome sequencing data for more than different natural inbred lines are available, and this has encouraged the distributed generation of many types of phenotypic data.
AraPheno includes various features to easily access, download and visualize the phenotypic data. This will facilitate a comparative analysis of the many different types of phenotypic data, which is the base to further enhance our understanding of the genotype—phenotype map. Seymour D. The ubiquity of nonparental hybrid phenotypes, such as hybrid vigor and hybrid inferiority, has interested biologists for over a century and is of considerable agricultural importance.
Although examples of both phenomena have been subject to intense investigation, no general model for the molecular basis of nonadditive genetic variance has emerged, and prediction of hybrid phenotypes from parental information continues to be a challenge. Here we explore the genetics of hybrid phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana individuals derived from intercrosses of 30 parents in a half diallel mating scheme.
We find that nonadditive genetic effects are a major component of genetic variation in this population and that the genetic basis of hybrid phenotype can be mapped using genome-wide association GWA techniques. Our study not only illustrates the promise of GWA approaches to dissect the genetic architecture underpinning hybrid performance but also demonstrates the contribution of classical dominance to genetic variance.
SLU, Uppsala, Sweden. Hybrid necrosis is a common type of hybrid incompatibility in plants. This phenomenon is caused by deleterious epistatic interactions, resulting in spontaneous activation of plant defenses associated with leaf necrosis, stunted growth and reduced fertility in hybrids. Increased ACD6 activity confers broad-spectrum resistance against biotrophic pathogens but reduces biomass production. Necrotic hybrids were further investigated by genetic linkage, amiRNA silencing, genomic complementation and metabolic profiling.
Restriction site associated DNA RAD -sequencing was used to understand genetic diversity in the collection sites containing necrosis-inducing alleles. Novel combinations of ACD6 alleles found in neighbouring stands were found to activate the A. In contrast to what we observed in controlled conditions, necrotic hybrids did not show reduced fitness in the field. Metabolic profiling revealed changes associated with the activation of the immune system in ACD6-dependent hybrid necrosis. This study expands our current understanding of the active role of ACD6 in mediating trade-offs between defense responses and growth in A.
The notion of species as reproductively isolated units related through a bifurcating tree implies that gene trees should generally agree with the species tree and that sister taxa should not share polymorphisms unless they diverged recently and should be equally closely related to outgroups.
It is now possible to evaluate this model systematically. We sequenced multiple individuals from 27 described taxa representing the entire Arabidopsis genus. Cluster analysis identified seven groups, corresponding to described species that capture the structure of the genus.
However, at the level of gene trees, only the separation of Arabidopsis thaliana from the remaining species was universally supported, and, overall, the amount of shared polymorphism demonstrated that reproductive isolation was considerably more recent than the estimated divergence times. We uncovered multiple cases of past gene flow that contradict a bifurcating species tree. Finally, we showed that the pattern of divergence differs between gene ontologies, suggesting a role for selection. Liu, C. The three-dimensional packing of the genome plays an important role in regulating gene expression.
We found that the repressive H3K27me3 histone mark is overrepresented in the promoter regions of genes that are in conformational linkage over long distances. Such self-loop structures of genes are more likely to occur in more highly expressed genes, although they can also be found in silent genes. Silent genes with local chromatin loops are highly enriched for the histone variant H3. Kawakatsu, T. Because epigenetic variation can impact transcription and thus phenotypes, it may contribute to adaptation.
Here, we report 1, high-quality single-base resolution methylomes and 1, transcriptomes from the Genomes collection of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the genetic basis of methylation variation is highly complex, geographic origin is a major predictor of genome-wide DNA methylation levels and of altered gene expression caused by epialleles. Comparison to cistrome and epicistrome datasets identifies associations between transcription factor binding sites, methylation, nucleotide variation, and co-expression modules.
Physical maps for nine of the most diverse genomes reveal how transposons and other structural variants shape the epigenome, with dramatic effects on immunity genes. The Epigenomes Project provides a comprehensive resource for understanding how variation in DNA methylation contributes to molecular and non-molecular phenotypes in natural populations of the most studied model plant.
Iakovidis, M. We identified loci responsible for natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Arabidopsis responses to a bacterial pathogen virulence factor, HopAM1. Delivery of HopAM1 from disarmed Pseudomonas strains leads to local cell death, meristem chlorosis, or both, with varying intensities in different Arabidopsis accessions. These phenotypes are not associated with differences in bacterial growth restriction. We treated the two phenotypes as quantitative traits to identify host loci controlling responses to HopAM1.
Genome Wide Association GWA of 64 Arabidopsis accessions identified independent variants highly correlated with response to each phenotype. HopAM1-induced changes in Arabidopsis gene expression showed that rapid HopAM1- dependent cell death in Bur-0 is correlated with effector-triggered immune responses. Studies of the effect of mutations in known plant immune system genes showed, surprisingly, that both cell death and chlorosis phenotypes are enhanced by loss of EDS1, a regulatory hub in the plant immune signaling network. Our results reveal complex genetic architecture for response to this particular type III virulence effector, in contrast to the typical monogenic control of cell death and disease resistance triggered by most type III effectors.
Thanks to our numerous fans for believing in us, and thanks to the PhD reps for organizing a fun event! Weiss, C. Herbaria archive a record of changes of worldwide plant biodiversity harbouring millions of specimens that contain DNA suitable for genome sequencing. To profit from this resource, it is fundamental to understand in detail the process of DNA degradation in herbarium specimens. We investigated patterns of DNA fragmentation and nucleotide misincorporation by analysing 86 herbarium samples spanning the last years using Illumina shotgun sequencing.
We found an exponential decay relationship between DNA fragmentation and time, and estimated a per nucleotide fragmentation rate of 1. Additionally, we found that strand breaks occur specially before purines, and that depurination-driven DNA breakage occurs constantly through time and can to a great extent explain decreasing fragment length over time. Accurate estimations of DNA degradation through time will allow informed decisions about laboratory and computational procedures to take advantage of the vast collection of worldwide herbarium specimens.
The Genome Consortium. Arabidopsis thaliana serves as a model organism for the study of fundamental physiological, cellular, and molecular processes. It has also greatly advanced our understanding of intraspecific genome variation. We present a detailed map of variation in 1, high-quality re-sequenced natural inbred lines representing the native Eurasian and North African range and recently colonized North America.
We identify relict populations that continue to inhabit ancestral habitats, primarily in the Iberian Peninsula. They have mixed with a lineage that has spread to northern latitudes from an unknown glacial refugium and is now found in a much broader spectrum of habitats. Insights into the history of the species and the fine-scale distribution of genetic diversity provide the basis for full exploitation of A.
Wibowo, A. Inducible epigenetic changes in eukaryotes are believed to enable rapid adaptation to environmental fluctuations. We have found distinct regions of the Arabidopsis genome that are susceptible to DNA de methylation in response to hyperosmotic stress. The stress-induced epigenetic changes are associated with conditionally heritable adaptive phenotypic stress responses. However, these stress responses are primarily transmitted to the next generation through the female lineage due to widespread DNA glycosylase activity in the male germline, and extensively reset in the absence of stress.
This transient memory relies on the DNA methylation machinery and associated transcriptional changes to extend the phenotypic plasticity accessible to the immediate offspring. Venturelli, S. Plants compete with their neighbors via the release of chemical compounds into the rhizosphere. These phytotoxins originate from a series of secondary metabolites and can be processed further by soil-living microorganisms before exerting their activity on the target plant.
To determine the molecular mode of action and the physiological relevance of potential phytotoxins, it is important to simulate true-to-life conditions in laboratory experiments, for example by applying physiologically relevant concentrations. Here, we report on an improved experimental setting to study the function of allelochemicals of the benzoxazolinone class.
By adjusting the solvent and the application of the chemicals, we reduced by more than twenty-fold the concentration that is necessary to induce growth defects in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Rigal, M. Genes and transposons can exist in variable DNA methylation states, with potentially differential transcription.
How these epialleles emerge is poorly understood. Here, we show that crossing an Arabidopsis thaliana plant with a hypomethylated genome and a normally methylated WT individual results, already in the F1 generation, in widespread changes in DNA methylation and transcription patterns. Novel nonparental and heritable epialleles arise at many genic loci, including a locus that itself controls DNA methylation patterns, but with most of the changes affecting pericentromeric transposons.
Although a subset of transposons show immediate resilencing, a large number display decreased DNA methylation, which is associated with de novo or enhanced transcriptional activation and can translate into transposon mobilization in the progeny. Our findings reveal that the combination of distinct epigenomes can be viewed as an epigenomic shock, which is characterized by a round of epigenetic variation creating novel patterns of gene and TE regulation. Chae, E. Plants have a sophisticated innate immune system with which they defend themselves against a myriad of pathogens. During the past two decades, work in a range of species has advanced our knowledge of the molecular and biochemical details of plant immunity.
NLR genes constitute the most diverse gene family in plants, reflecting their role in perceiving a very diverse set of molecules that are released by pathogens. There has also been progress in unraveling the forces that drive diversification of NLR and non-NLR immune receptors in wild species. A major recent insight from mechanistic and evolutionary studies is that there is both cooperation and conflict in the plant immune system.
Here, we propose that these two antagonistic forces are inherently entangled, and that they are potentially fundamental to our understanding of growth-defense trade-offs. Bergelson, J. Colleagues from the medical field have estimated that up to one third of cell lines are contaminated with other cell lines or are misidentified, and in addition, repeated passaging substantially changes cell line properties reviewed in Hughes et al.
The medical community has therefore begun to establish standards for verification of cell lines and genetic stocks, and NIH has announced efforts to require validation and to aid researchers in validating their biological material Lorsch et al. Plant biologists should do the same.
Even though the propagation of seed stocks cannot be directly compared to animal cell culture, contamination is a real possibility, and it is not uncommon that the same genetic stock produces different phenotypes in different laboratories. Confirming the genetic identity of research material is necessary to know whether such phenotypic differences reflect gene-by-environment GxE interactions, or whether they are simply due to apples being compared to oranges. Winds and snow threatened the success of the experiment, but we verified how tough both Arabidopsis and researchers can be.
We finished in good spirits, and more than plates are ready for a systematic molecular analysis. Thanks to all who helped repairing it so quickly! Read the Public Release here. And have a look at past recipients of the GSA medal here. Huang, S. Crop breeding is being revolutionized by rapid progress in DNA sequencing and targeted alteration of DNA sequences by genome editing.
Here we propose a regulatory framework for precision breeding with 'genome-edited crops' GECs so that society can fully benefit from the latest advances in plant genetics and genomics. Weiss, C.. Contamination with exogenous DNA is a constant hazard to ancient DNA studies, since their validity greatly depend on the ancient origin of the retrieved sequences.
Since contamination occurs sporadically, it is fundamental to show positive evidence for the authenticity of ancient DNA sequences even when preventive measures to avoid contamination are implemented. Recently the presence of wheat in the United Kingdom years before the present has been reported based on an analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA Smith et al.
Smith et al. We developed a computational method that compares postmortem damage patterns of a test dataset with bona fide ancient and modern DNA. We applied this test to the putative wheat DNA and find that these reads are most likely not of ancient origin. Read Nature News Article. To secure their access to water, light, and nutrients, many plant species have developed allelopathic strategies to suppress competitors. To this end, they release into the rhizosphere phytotoxic substances that inhibit the germination and growth of neighbors.
Despite the importance of allelopathy in shaping natural plant communities and for agricultural production, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that allelochemicals derived from the common class of cyclic hydroxamic acid root exudates directly affect the chromatin-modifying machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana. These allelochemicals inhibit histone deacetylases both in vitro and in vivo and exert their activity through locus-specific alterations of histone acetylation and associated gene expression.
Our multilevel analysis collectively shows how plant-plant interactions interfere with a fundamental cellular process, histone acetylation, by targeting an evolutionarily highly conserved class of enzymes. Read the Plant Cell Preview Article. Press Release. Distinct molecular mechanisms integrate changes in ambient temperature into the genetic pathways that govern flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Temperature-dependent eviction of the histone variant H2A. Z from nucleosomes has been suggested to facilitate the expression of FT by PIF4 at elevated ambient temperatures.
However, despite their strong potential to promote flowering, genetic analyses suggest that the PIF genes seem to have only a minor role in adjusting flowering in response to photoperiod or high ambient temperature. In addition, loss of PIF function only partially suppressed the early flowering phenotype and FT expression of the arp6 mutant, which is defective in H2A.
Z deposition. In contrast, the chemical inhibition of gibberellic acid GA biosynthesis resulted in a strong attenuation of early flowering and FT expression in arp6. Together, our results suggest that the timing of the floral transition in response to ambient temperature is more complex than previously thought and that GA signaling might play a crucial role in this process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Karlsson, P. Weigel, D. However, it has proven remarkably difficult to demonstrate at the genetic, genomic, and population level exactly how wild species adapt to their natural environments.
We discuss how one can use large sets of multiple genome sequences from wild populations to understand adaptation, with an emphasis on the small herbaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We present motivation for such studies; summarize progress in describing whole-genome, species-wide sequence variation; and then discuss what insights have emerged from these resources, either based on sequence information alone or in combination with phenotypic data. We conclude with thoughts on opportunities with other plant species and the impact of expected progress in sequencing technology and genome engineering for studying adaptation in nature.
The enormous diversity of NLR proteins has made their genes difficult to study with conventional genome sequencing techniques. These hurdles have recently been overcome, and using a new highly accurate, fast, and cost-efficient technique developed in the Jones lab, the teams will reveal the diversity of NLR proteins within and across plant species. The Leopoldina honors his outstanding achievements in the fields of developmental and evolutionary genetics.
The Mendel Medal commemorates Gregor Mendel , the founder of genetics. With this award, the Leopoldina honors pioneering achievements in the field of general and molecular genetics. Methods that use high-throughput sequencing have begun to reveal features of the three-dimensional structure of genomes at a resolution that goes far beyond that of traditional microscopy.
Integration of these methods with other molecular tools has advanced our knowledge of both global and local chromatin packing in plants, and has revealed how patterns of chromatin packing correlate with the genomic and epigenomic landscapes. This update reports recent progress made in this area in plants, and suggests new research directions. Capovilla, G. Developmental plasticity enables plants to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions, such as temperature fluctuations.
Understanding how plants measure temperature and integrate this information into developmental programs at the molecular level will be essential to breed thermo-tolerant crop varieties. Recent studies identified alternative splicing AS as a possible 'molecular thermometer', allowing plants to quickly adjust the abundance of functional transcripts to environmental perturbations. In this review, recent advances regarding the effects of temperature-responsive AS on plant development will be discussed, with emphasis on the circadian clock and flowering time control.
The challenge for the near future will be to understand the molecular mechanisms by which temperature can influence AS regulation. Warren, R. White spruce Picea glauca , a gymnosperm tree, has been established as one of the models for conifer genomics. We describe the draft genome assemblies of two white spruce genotypes, PG29 and WS, innovative tools for the assembly of very large genomes, and the conifer genomics resources developed in this process.
The two white spruce genotypes originate from distant geographic regions of western PG29 and eastern WS North America, and represent elite trees in two Canadian tree-breeding programs. We present an update V3 and V4 for a previously reported PG29 V2 draft genome assembly and introduce a second white spruce genome assembly for genotype WS Assemblies of the PG29 and WS genomes confirm the reconstructed white spruce genome size in the 20 Gbp range, and show broad synteny.
Using the PG29 V3 assembly and additional white spruce genomics and transcriptomics resources, we performed MAKER-P annotation and meticulous expert annotation of very large gene families of conifer defense metabolism, the terpene synthases and cytochrome Ps. We also comprehensively annotated the white spruce mevalonate, methylerythritol phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. These analyses highlighted the large extent of gene and pseudogene duplications in a conifer genome, in particular for genes of secondary i.
Kottler, V. Guppies Poecilia reticulata are colorful fish that have attracted the attention of pigmentation researchers for almost a century. Here, we report that the blond phenotype of the guppy is caused by a spontaneous mutation in the guppy ortholog of adenylate cyclase 5 adcy5. Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing ddRADseq and quantitative trait locus QTL mapping, we linked the blond phenotype to a candidate region of kb, in which we subsequently identified a 2-bp deletion in adcy5 that alters splicing and leads to a premature stop codon.
We show that adcy5 , which affects lifespan and melanoma growth in mouse, is required for melanophore development and formation of male orange pigmentation traits in the guppy. We find that some components of the male orange pattern are particularly sensitive to loss of Adcy5 function. Our work thus reveals a function for Adcy5 in patterning of fish color ornaments.
Francisco-Mangilet A. Yeast two hybrid experiments and confocal microscopy showed that THO2 does not seem to interact with any of the known miRNA biogenesis components, but rather with the splicing machinery, implying an indirect role of THO2 in small RNA biogenesis. Read more about Markus' research here. Link to retreat pictures. Koenig D, Weigel D.
For decades a small number of model species have rightly occupied a privileged position in laboratory experiments, but it is becoming increasingly clear that our knowledge of biology is greatly improved when informed by a broader diversity of species and evolutionary context.
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Arabidopsis thaliana has been the primary model organism for plants, benefiting from a high-quality reference genome sequence and resources for reverse genetics. However, recent studies have made a group of species also in the Brassicaceae family and closely related to A. In this Review, we emphasize how such studies complement continued study of the model plant itself, provide an evolutionary perspective and summarize our current understanding of genetic and phenotypic diversity in plants.
Willing E. Despite evolutionary conserved mechanisms to silence transposable element activity, there are drastic differences in the abundance of transposable elements even among closely related plant species. Analysing this genome revealed long-lasting and recent transposable element activity predominately driven by Gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons, which extended the low-recombining pericentromeres and transformed large formerly euchromatic regions into repeat-rich pericentromeric regions.
This reduced capacity for long terminal repeat retrotransposon silencing and removal in A. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a highly dynamic evolution of some components of methylation maintenance machinery that might be related to the unique methylation in A. After processing from imperfect fold-back structures, miRNAs are incorporated into RNA-induced silencing complexes RISCs before targeting transcripts with varying degrees of complementarity.
Some miRNAs are evolutionarily deep-rooted, and sequence complementarity with their targets is maintained through purifying selection. Both Arabidopsis and Capsella belong to the tribe Camelineae in the Brassicaceae, with Capsella rubella serving as an outgroup to the genus Arabidopsis. The genome sequence of C. Through next-generation sequencing, we identify high-confidence miRNA candidates specific to the C. Only a few lineage-specific miRNAs have been studied for evolutionary constraints, and there have been no systematic studies of miRNA target diversity within or divergence between closely related plant species.
Therefore we contrast sequence variation in miRNAs and their targets within A. We document a surprising amount of small-scale variation in miRNA-target pairs, where many miRNAs are predicted to have species-specific targets in addition to ones that are shared between species. Beth A. The reshuffling of existing genetic variation during meiosis is important both during evolution and in breeding. The re-assortment of genetic variants relies on the formation of crossovers COs between homologous chromosomes. The pattern of genome-wide CO distributions can be rapidly and precisely established by short read sequencing of individuals from F2 populations, which in turn are useful for quantitative trait locus QTL mapping.
While sequencing costs have dropped precipitously in recent years, the costs of library preparation for hundreds of individuals have remained high. To enable rapid and inexpensive CO detection and QTL mapping using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of large mapping populations, we have developed a new method for library preparation along with Trained Individual GenomE Reconstruction TIGER , a probabilistic method for genotype and CO predictions for recombinant individuals.
In an example case with hundreds of F2 individuals from two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we resolved most CO breakpoints to within 2 kb and reduced a major flowering time QTL to a 9-kb interval. In addition, an extended region of unusually low recombination revealed a 1. In summary, we present a new, cost efficient method for large-scale, high-precision genotyping-by-sequencing. There has been much excitement about the possibility that exposure to specific environments can induce an ecological memory in the form of whole-sale, genome-wide epigenetic changes that are maintained over many generations.
In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, numerous heritable DNA methylation differences have been identified in greenhouse-grown isogenic lines, but it remains unknown how natural, highly variable environments affect the rate and spectrum of such changes. Here we present detailed methylome analyses in a geographically dispersed A. Methylome variation largely reflected genetic distance, and was in many aspects similar to that of lines raised in uniform conditions.
Thus, even when plants are grown in varying and diverse natural sites, genome-wide epigenetic variation accumulates mostly in a clock-like manner, and epigenetic divergence thus parallels the pattern of genome-wide DNA sequence divergence. Patrice A. The circadian oscillator is astonishingly robust, to changes in the environment, but also to genomic changes that alter the copy number of its components through genome duplication, gene duplication and homeologous gene loss.
While studying the potential effect of aneuploidy on the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock, we discovered that a line thought to be trisomic for chromosome 3 also bears the gi-1 mutation, resulting in a short period and late flowering. With the help of whole genome sequencing, we uncovered the unexpected complexity of this trisomic stock's history, as its genome shows evidence of past outcrossing with another A.
Our study indicates that while historical aneuploidy lines exist and are available, it might be safer to generate new individuals and confirm their genomes and karyotypes by sequencing. We reported on recessive hybrid incompatibility between an Arabidopsis thaliana strain from Poland, Landsberg erecta Ler , and many Central Asian A. In a neutral background, expression of most RPP1-like Ler genes, except R3, has no effect on growth or pathogen resistance. Incompatibility involves increased R3 expression and engineered R3 overexpression in a neutral background induces dwarfism and sterility.
However, no individual RPP1-like Ler gene is sufficient for incompatibility between Ler and Kas-2 or Kond, suggesting that co-action of at least two RPP1-like members underlies this epistatic interaction. Therefore, the RPP1-like Ler haplotype has been maintained in genetically different individuals at a single site, allowing exploration of forces shaping the evolution of RPP1-like genes at local and regional population scales.
The tremendous diversity of leaf shapes has caught the attention of naturalists for centuries. In addition to interspecific and intraspecific differences, leaf morphologies may differ in single plants according to age, a phenomenon known as heteroblasty [ 1 ]. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the progression from the juvenile to the adult phase is characterized by increased leaf serration. A similar trend is seen in species with more complex leaves, such as the A. Although the genetic changes that led to the overall simpler leaf architecture in A.
Here, we describe a conserved miRNA transcription factor regulon responsible for an age-dependent increase in leaf complexity. In early leaves, miRtargeted TCP transcription factors interfere with the function of miRdependent and miRindependent CUC proteins, preventing the formation of serrations in A. The destabilization licenses activation of CUC protein complexes and thereby the gradual increase of leaf complexity in the newly formed organs.
These findings point to posttranslational interaction between unrelated miRNA-targeted transcription factors as a core feature of these regulatory circuits. Laitinen, Beth A. Summary Intraspecific genetic incompatibilities prevent the assembly of specific alleles into single genotypes and influence genome- and species-wide patterns of sequence variation. A common incompatibility in plants is hybrid necrosis, characterized by autoimmune responses due to epistatic interactions between natural genetic variants. By systematically testing thousands of F1 hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana strains, we identified a small number of incompatibility hot spots in the genome, often in regions densely populated by nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat NLR immune receptor genes.
In several cases, these immune receptor loci interact with each other, suggestive of conflict within the immune system. A particularly dangerous locus is a highly variable cluster of NLR genes, DM2, which causes multiple independent incompatibilities with genes that encode a range of biochemical functions, including NLRs. Our findings suggest that deleterious interactions of immune receptors limit the combinations of favorable disease resistance alleles accessible to plant genomes.
DNA methylation is an ancient molecular modification found in most eukaryotes. In plants, DNA methylation is not only critical for transcriptionally silencing transposons, but can also affect phenotype by altering expression of protein coding genes. The extent of its contribution to phenotypic diversity over evolutionary time is, however, unclear, because of limited stability of epialleles that are not linked to DNA mutations.
To dissect the relative contribution of DNA methylation to transposon surveillance and host gene regulation, we leveraged information from three species in the Brassicaceae that vary in genome architecture, Capsella rubella, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the lineage-specific expansion and contraction of transposon and repeat sequences is the main driver of interspecific differences in DNA methylation. The most heavily methylated portions of the genome are thus not conserved at the sequence level.
Outside of repeat-associated methylation, there is a surprising degree of conservation in methylation at single nucleotides located in gene bodies. Finally, dynamic DNA methylation is affected more by tissue type than by environmental differences in all species, but these responses are not conserved. The majority of DNA methylation variation between species resides in hypervariable genomic regions, and thus, in the context of macroevolution, is of limited phenotypic consequence. Genome-wide analysis of local chromatin packing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome Res. The spatial arrangement of interphase chromosomes in the nucleus is important for gene expression and genome function in animals and in plants.
The recently developed Hi-C technology is an efficacious method to investigate genome packing. Here we present a detailed Hi-C map of the three-dimensional genome organization of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We find that local chromatin packing differs from the patterns seen in animals, with kilobasepair-sized segments that have much higher intra-chromosome interaction rates than neighboring regions, representing a dominant local structural feature of genome conformation in A. These regions, which appear as positive strips on two-dimensional representations of chromatin interaction, are enriched in epigenetic marks H3K27me3, H3.
We also identify over insulator-like regions. Furthermore, although topologically associating domains TADs , which are prominent in animals, are not an obvious feature of A. The insulator-like, TAD-boundary-like, and TAD-interior-like regions are each enriched for distinct epigenetic marks, and are each correlated with different gene expression levels. We conclude that epigenetic modifications, gene density, and transcriptional activity combine to shape the local packing of the A.
Dissection of miRNA pathways using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Despite the remarkable expansion of the field, the mechanisms underlying miRNA activity are not fully understood. In this paper, we describe a transient expression system in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts that is highly amenable for the dissection of miRNA pathways.
We show that by transiently overexpressing primary miRNAs and target mimics, we can manipulate miRNA levels and consequently impact on their targets. Furthermore, we developed a set of luciferase-based sensors for quantifying miRNA activity that respond specifically to both endogenous and overexpressed miRNAs and target mimics. We demonstrate that these miRNA sensors can be used to test the impact of putative components of the miRNA pathway on miRNA activity, as well as the impact of specific mutations, either by overexpression or by the use of protoplasts from the corresponding mutants.
Our cell-based transient expression system is fast and easy to set up and generates quantitative results, being a powerful tool for assaying miRNA activity in vivo. Starting from scratch: adaptation to variable environments after an extreme bottleneck. Phenotypic and genetic variation in Biscutella didyma and adaptation to environmental change - a combined ecological-genomic approach.
Cell Host Microbe. While conceptual principles governing plant immunity are becoming clear, its systems-level organization and the evolutionary dynamic of the host-pathogen interface are still obscure. We generated a systematic protein-protein interaction network of virulence effectors from the ascomycete pathogen Golovinomyces orontii and Arabidopsis thaliana host proteins. We combined this data set with corresponding data for the eubacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Imagine Twain sitting there with a cigar and perhaps a glass of Scotch whiskey.
Imagine yourself with the cigar and Scotch. It is wonderful, in the true, fundamental sense of that word. The Scholarly Mark Twain Edition The potential reader for this edition should be aware of several items. First, this autobiography is an oversize hardbook which means it may not fit into a bookshelf with other more traditional hardbooks.
Second this is an academic press which means that there is a long introduction and discussion of prior autobiographical starts by Mark Twain for two hundred pages. The actual autobiography of Mark Twain is only pages of transcriptions from his dictation of his attempt to write his life story. Two more volumes will be published later. Third, this edition is a rambling text with no chronological sequence.
Mark Twain told stories as he remembered as they came to his memory. None of these observations are negative but the reader should be aware of these differences. This book aims to be the definitive edition by publishing everything that Mark dictated or wrote after in the order that it came into creation.
Prior publications were much shorter as various editors organized what they thought was interesting, had his family's approval and was in some chronlogical sequence Charles Neider did the best overall job of this fifty years ago. What the reader has here is Mark Twain's true speaking voice -- he is doing a monologue in your presence, going wherever his memory takes him.
Read more 2. He is also known for his quotations. The character of Tom Sawyer was modeled on twain as a child, with traces of two schoolmates, John Briggs and Will Bowen. His next major published work, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, solidified him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel. Finn was an offshoot from Tom Sawyer and proved to have a more serious tone than its predecessor. The main premise behind Huckleberry Finn is the young boy's belief in the right thing to do even though the majority of society believes that it was wrong.
Here is is discussing telling rather than writing a story. Humour, he says, is American while comic is English and witty is French. He follows this typically brilliant essay with examples of story telling and some intriguing experiences of mental telegraphy. Good on you Dodo Press for specialising in rare and out-of-print books. Mark Twain devotees will want to add this slim volume to their collection. From the mouth of an American master An entertaining read from on of America's treasured voices.
Kindle version was a welcome convenience and you can't beat the price!! The wonderful Fenimore Cooper essay is available online several places for free; see the second Comment for a link to UVA's collection. Twain has a great gift for explaining how to tell even a poor story. Despite his disclaimer: "I do not claim that I can tell a story as it ought to be told.
I only claim to know how a story ought to be told, for I have been almost daily in the company of the most expert story-tellers for many years. Robert C.
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Read more 3. Due to its age, it may contain imperfections such as marks, notations, marginalia and flawed pages. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment to protecting, preserving, and promoting the worlds literature. Kessinger Publishing is the place to find hundreds of thousands of rare and hard-to-find books with something of interest for everyone! Read more Customer Reviews 15 the un-complete short stories This volume claims to present the complete short stories of Mark Twain.
It contains sixty stories but is far from being complete. Indeed in other editions I have collected thirty-three more tales, some of them absolutely extraordinary, and worthy to be anthologized. For instance 'Mr Bloke's item' published in seems completely forgotten. But one of the funniest stories I know. Nevertheless this book is very entertaining, if not complete. Great Collection This is a great collection of Twain's short story "song book".
To agree with one review, the way in which it is published does make some of the stories in the middle of the book hard to read, and to disagree with another, this is a collection of sixty short stories so do not base you opinion of Twain's work on one cynical story with the simple message of "Life's not fair". The collection really helps to give great insight on Twain's progression as a writer and thinker and is a great read for any person interested in American Fiction.
Short and Sad A Dog's Tale is a beautifully written short story that abandons the satirical humor of Clemens halfway through. Anyone that can appreciate a well written tear jerker will love this emotional afternoon read. A Dog's Tale it's a trick, don't read it. Absolutely Indispensable Though most famous for novels and non-fiction, Mark Twain is one of the all-time great short story writers. His shorts are indeed as essential as his other work. This magnificent collection is currently the most popular - not to mention the most comprehensive that can be easily found -, making it one of the few works that truly belongs on everyone's bookshelf.
It has sixty stories over nearly pages, arranged chronologically and covering Twain's whole writing career. Or Hell? One of the most fascinating things is to see how Twain's stories grew darker. Though often sharply satirical, early pieces are nearly all light-hearted and often comical - some of the more memorably pleasant light reading in existence. However, Twain became ever more embittered, and his stories - some of which he dared not have published while alive - clearly reflect this.
Dark masterpieces like "Hadleyburg" and "The Mysterious" seethe with misanthropy and deep pessimism. The contrast is nothing less than stunning and sometimes makes transitions awkward, but the chronological approach is still the best way to appreciate the breadth of Twain's accomplishment. Some stories are less good, but there is more to make us laugh, cry, and think here than in most writers' whole careers; Twain is one of the few truly immortal artists, and this is an essential part of his legacy. There is no arguing with what is here; editor Charles Neider even includes excellent works like "The Diary of Adam and Eve" that are not often given in such collections as well as thirteen selections culled from non-fiction books.
However, the title is misleading, and hard-cores will notice many omissions. All significant works qualifying as short stories by the strictest definition are here, but Twain wrote many short pieces that straddled the border between fiction and various genres. This included numerous pieces before "The Notorious," universally considered his first real literary effort, but they are very minor and of interest only to true diehards and scholars. More significant, though, are multiple omissions of works - many from late in his career - that dramatized various sociopolitical, philosophical, and theological concerns in quasi-fictional form.
Also questionable is his decision to include the first published version of "The Mysterious," which was not authorized by Twain or printed as he wished, though the text's history is admittedly very complicated and this is the best version for most. True fans will want to seek out these and other pieces, as hopefully will anyone who likes this book, but these complaints are essentially nitpicking, because what is here is truly great and will be more than enough for general readers.
All told, this should be among the first handful of Twain books anyone buys, which is all that need be said. Read more 4. Purchasers are entitled to a free trial membership in the General Books Club where they can select from more than a million books without charge. Read more Customer Reviews 41 Great stories This is a great collection of stories from a master. More of a journal than a finished work. The kindle version was fairly well done with a number of formatting errors, but nothing so bad to not make it worth the free price. Thanks for kindling this.
I may not have read it otherwise. Kudos to Amazon! Kudos to Amazon for making "Life on the Mississippi" available for free for the Kindle and the iPhone Kindle application! Twain's book is a rambling affair, and in fact, its somewhat quirky form makes it read more like a present-day book than a product of its time. Twain's style is engaging. This might be clearest in the historical sections, where, if you think that all historical narratives are dry and academic, "Life on the Mississippi" will prove you wrong.
As many other reviewers note, this is an entirely different view of Mark Twain's work than the novels that tend to find themselves relegated to study in the public schools, and in many ways both more informative and more fun. Thanks again to Amazon for making this and other important public domain books available for free download! Much too long and unfocused Had Twain stopped after the first section, in which he describes riverboat piloting and his exploits therein, I would have come away with a positive impression of the book.
His piloting writings were entertaining and interesting, even though not particularly relevant in today's world. However the later chapters ruin the book. Twain documents his return to the Mississippi with a plethora of miscellaneous descriptions and loosely related anecdotes. These sections range from only mildly entertaining to just plain boring, as Twain doesn't even use his humor to save them.
In the end the disappointment of the second half outweighs the enjoyment of the first half. To wit There are many many Typos and no table of contents. This is all stated on the publishers web site google them and read for yourself to get all the details. Almost every review of books published by General Books LLC around , of them from one imprint or another now listed on Amazon by buyers is negative, many are extremely so.
As the General Books LLC version has reviews of other publishers versions associated with it, you need to be very careful to make sure you've bought a decent version. However, Life on the Mississippi is just as important and, in a testament to Twain's greatness, nearly as readable despite being non-fiction. It details his history with the river and gives an overview of the river itself; this may sound boring, and almost certainly would be with anyone else, but I long ago decided that even Twain's laundry list would be worth reading, and this certainly is.
The magic he seemed to bring to everything is in full force; one would be very hard-pressed to find another non-fiction book that is so entertaining, besides Twain's others of course, but it is also awesomely informative. In addition, Life is historically notable as the first book written on a typewriter, not Huck as is commonly thought; however, it made Twain able to finish Huck, which he had struggled with for some years and set aside.
Huck fans and scholars will want to read Life for this alone, but it is more than worthy in itself. Twain starts by giving some basic facts and history; this is the least interesting part but only lasts a few pages, and I urge anyone bored by it to continue. Much of the information is of course dated but remains historically valuable as a portrait of the river as it then stood.
Far more interesting is Twain's unforgettable rundown of his years as a riverboat pilot - a central life experience that led to much of his writing. We get a fascinating glimpse of this long-vanquished trade, which was all but unthinkable even when Life was published. It is important to recall that Twain was a pilot before such boats had steam or even lights at night. He details piloting's extraordinary difficulties with engrossing detail and typical self-deprecating humor.
We learn much along the way about the riverboat lifestyle, the river itself, and riverside towns. Life covers a crucial American history era and is an important primary source even for those not interested in Twain and certainly essential for anyone who is, as it gives substantial background about a crucial part of his life. The book is indeed in part a bildungsroman; Twain had always loved the river and began pilot training soon after first leaving home.
Twain then details a trip he made on the river many years later, noting what changed and what stayed the same. There is significant autobiographical material here also, but the crux is descriptive. Twain describes the river's whole length and everything having to do with it as he goes, making it all utterly absorbing. As always, there are many eminently readable tangents. Several are autobiographical - reminisces as well as then recent events. Particularly interesting is Twain's profoundly touching visit to his hometown after a long absence.
However, a good part of Life has nothing to do with the river directly but is at least as engrossing as what does. Twain's many asides are full of wit and insight; few have ever probed so deeply into life and humanity, and we are lucky to have his wisdom, much of which is hilarious. Twain's sociopolitical criticism is also as brilliant as ever, taking on everything from architecture to Walter Raleigh to speech.
Finally, Life would be valuable even if lacking all this because it passes on an invaluable treasure of American folklore.
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Life is quite simply required reading for anyone even remotely interested in American literature; it is essential Twain, which makes it simply essential. As for this edition, it is essentially bare bones. Anyone wanting supplemental material will need to look elsewhere, but this will do well for most, as the text stands very well on its own. Read more 5. This popular classic work by Mark Twain is in the English language. If you enjoy the works of Mark Twain then we highly recommend this publication for your book collection.
Read more Customer Reviews 3 I can get it for you free Why spend money on something when you don't have to? I don't think Mark Twain would mind - in fact, he'd probably find it amusing. It too must be a burlesque. This item is described as 24 pages of them are completely blank.
The title page does not include a publisher probably out of shame The remaining 10 pages are printed in something resembling typewriter script, a rambling list of notorious ancestors which I imagine could be typical of a spontaneous dinner party expostion by Mr. There is no introductory or historical comment giving any information whatsoever as to the source of the text in this "High Quality Paperback. After downloading Kindle for Mac, I downloaded a number of free books and began reading Twain. His wit and use of English is both enjoyable and inspiring, but one must read carefully.
Slowly is even better. I'd shoot my half. One wonders what he might say about being politically correct. Read more 6. See the sample for the complete and navigable table of contents. Read more Customer Reviews 13 Twain in a nutshell I use this edition a lot when I am writing my columns. It provides a quick reference to almost ever work that Mark Twain ever wrote.
If I'm trying to figure out if a quote is really from Mark Twain or not, it provides a quick reference. I think that it provides a great way to get Twain on your Kindle if you do not want to download each of the books individually. I picked up the free editions of some of the classics just to save having to go through the whole collection when I want to read in them. This is a great compliment to the new Autobiography of Mark Twain vol 1. Autobiography of Mark Twain: The Complete and Authoritative Edition, Volume 1 as once you have read that you'll definitely want to catch up on Twain stories you might have missed.
Nice book! Well worth the cost. The first pages after the cover are the Table of Contents. When the Kindle software opens this book it goes the the first of Mark Twain's works, past the Table of Contents.imap.manualcoursemarket.com/dowa-miglior-prezzo.php
Browse By Author: H - Project Gutenberg
As I said just remember the "Go To Cover", then step forward. Pages in Each Book The price is a bargain. I did not have any issues with indexing or finding the Table of Contents another review covered this. This is the first Kindle book with multiple stories that I purchased. I never gave it any thought before, but personally I like to know the length of a story before I start reading.
On single books in Kindle you can see your percentage read, your location and the location number for the end of book location. With this particular compilation of books I have no idea how long a story is or where I am in that story. I do not know if other book compilations have the same issue or not, but for me this is a negative. Easy to navigate, easy to read, amazingly complete content for the price First I want to address some of the negative comments made by other reviews - comments that don't prove to be true in my experience.
Table of Contents - This edition, as advertised, does come with a fully functional interactive Table of Contents. The only problem - an extremely minor one that isn't uncommon with Kindle books - is that "Table of Contents" is grayed out on the Kindle's "Go To" menu. As I've discovered before, that doesn't mean there isn't an interactive Table of Contents. Once I found it, I bookmarked it for future use.
Cursoring through the Table of Contents using the 5-way control produced the small "pointing finger" icon and once the finger is pointing at the desired article, pressing down on the 5-way immediately takes me right to the very article. The T of C is lengthy, but it's text searchable. The Font - No way is the font Courier, which is a monospace font. In fact, it's the very same proportionally spaced font used for the vast majority of books I've read on Kindle to date over It's the font that the Oxford American Dictionary native to the Kindle 2 uses.
I find that font to be perfectly pleasant to read and I can't imagine why anyone would object to it. Extra White Space Between Paragraphs - Yes, there seems to be one extra line of white space between paragraphs. It's nothing I haven't seen before reading books on the Kindle. At worst, it means that, in the course of reading a book, I might have to press the "Next Page" button more times than if there were only one line of white space between paragraphs. So far, my button-pushing finger doesn't seem to be damaged on account of it.
In fact, I simply think it's a typesetting consideration. Some books indent paragraphs, some don't. When indented, some books indent the first line more than others. Some books skip a single line between paragraphs, some skip two lines. So what? It doesn't interfere with reading in the least bit. Searching the Text - At first, when I tried to search for a given text string, I received that error message saying that the book was not yet indexed and to try later. I've run into that before with a book on Kindle when I've opened it for the first time.
But, after reading a while, after turning the pages a number of times, that problem cleared up with this book - as it has with other books in the past. I think that, with some books, the Kindle isn't immediately synchronized to the searchable text, but at some point, synchronization occurs and, once it does, there are no further problems. So, read for a bit, and you'll find everything is copacetic when it comes to searching the text. Omissions of Certain Twain Works - Perhaps some things are missing. Me, I haven't noticed any. What I have noticed is that this book offers just about everything Samuel Clemens wrote as Mark Twain, all his novels, short stories, essays, magazine articles and personal correspondence.
My one complaint is that there are typographical errors of the sort that occur when a print edition is optically scanned to electronic format. It's generally not too hard to figure out what the correct word should be - "the" instead of "he," for example, or "shoe" instead of "shot. Perhaps there is some contents links that show up on an actual Kindle device but there is no evidence of them otherwise.
Without an active TOC, it is completely impossible to use this collection. If you have a Kindle, I don't know if it works or not. Read more 7. As other reviewers have noted, bits are missing throughout the story. Mostly newspaper clippings are missing, but frequently the article bits that do make it in have their formatting a bit butchered. The story is still very good and worth reading in this format, just know that if you really love it here then it is worth rereading in a printing that has the whole thing. Not worth buyingfree There seems to be problems with transcribing some parts of books such as this.
Throughout, the major turning points of the stories, which are quotes from either letters or newspaper articles, are completely missing. I am guessing that the missing sections appear in italics or some variant form. This not the only book in which I have seen this -- makes the entire thing useless. The whole development of the story involves newspaper ads -- all of which are missing.
Twain got me I have to admit, this story really captivated my attention. There was a lot of chaos and "secrecy" going on but in the end, he got me. Murder Mark Twain gave advice to a young man who wanted to be a writer: "When you catch an adjective, ill it. No, I don't mean that utterly, but kill the most of them - then the rest will be valuable. They weaken when they are close together, they give strength whenthe are wide apart. An adjective-habit, or a wordy, diffuse, or flowery habit, once fastened upon a person, is as hard to get rid of as any other vice.
Revolving around the theft of a literal white elephant, the gift of the King of Siam, this manifestly absurd story is nevertheless modeled after the real life efforts of a blundering New York Police Department to recover the corpse of one Alexander T. Stewart, stolen from his family vault in Read more 8. The nom de plume was especially appropriate for Clemens, reflecting both his love of the Mississippi and his wry sense of humor. This deluxe edition is bound in padded leather with luxurious gold-stamping on the front and spine, satin ribbon marker and gilded edges. Read more Customer Reviews 5 Better than nothing, but.
I was fairly disappointed with this offering. The 'active' table of contents more often than not takes you to a blank page, at which point you're on your own. Back a page? Everything is Here Definitely Complete I'm not sure why that one person had a problem finding the Jumping Frog story in a previous review. Everything is here, literally everything. All you need to do to find it all on your Kindle is hit Menu, then "Go to There's a ton here, so you need to page over to the right to find more stories, which is where "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" appears.
There's no reason anyone should have rated this a "one star. Very impressed with this collection, and I recommend it to all!! Celebrated Frog is in my version I just downloaded the book to my Kindle, and the Celebrated Jumping Frog story is there. It is a little hard to navigate to, but if you go to the contents of the short stories, click on the Celebrated Jumping Frog, and then hit previous page you will be at the title.
All in all this is a great buy. The Works of Mark Twain and what was missing I bought this book for one reason only. To read: The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras Country" guess which is the only book short story which in not in this collection. The very one I bought the book for in the first place. I am furious. I bought the kindle version. I will not ever trust the person who is selling this book on Amazon. Explore the world with Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, enjoy the short stories that Mark Twain wrote, by yourself or share them with your children.
I know that I will enjoy it for many generations to come. Read more 9. Read more Customer Reviews 16 The quintessential Twain on religion. This book is a long needed source for the views that Mark Twain held on religion. It would be best though if you read his 'Letters From the Earth' book before reading this one. You will get the full dose of 'Twain' humor before you delve into his insights and background work for those stories. This book contains a large amount of 'new' material from the Twain Project library at the Univ of Cal Berkeley, and really is a must have book.
You will not be disappointed at all, surprised occasionally, but never disappointed. Great American Read! One window into Twain's religion. I've read in full only a few things by Twain, including some remarks of his ridiculing Mary Baker Eddy and her "Christian Science," his essay defending the quality of President Grant's memoirs against an unfavorable British review, and some of his other essays. Complete irreligion was still relatively rare in Twain's day, and his essay on "Saint Joan of Arc" see another work available on Amazon, his complete essays republished recently in paperback suggests that he had the good sense to appreciate the Saints, if not the spiritual healers.
In fact he would probably have qualified well as an ethical humanist, but also as a closet mystic of idiosyncratic bent a careful reading of Felix Adler's "Life and Destiny" would reveal that the founder of the Ethical Culture movement was also a mystic, his mysticism was merely not placed by him on the front cover of his appeals to humanity.
Twain presumably belonged to no organized church, and these essays of his on the Biible should probably be compared to the critical or even condemnatory writings of Tom Paine on the Bible and Christianity "The Age of Reason" if I recall the title correctly. But Twain's rave about Saint Joan, derived from his personal reading of the transcripts of her ecclesiastical trial for witchcraft and heresy, blew away any thoughts of mine that he might be regarded as a mere atheist or irreligious fanatic. Where credit's due!
Let's give credit where credit's due. Read Colonel Bob's many lectures and you'll see what I mean. If you are in a college literature class, then this is probably a textbook in it. If not, it's probably TOO "academic" to be digested in one sitting. Read more But when Mark Twain died in , he left behind the largest collection of personal papers created by any nineteenth-century American author. The living must suppress their opinions or suffer "the bitter cost of putting [them] forth. Twain renders with hilarity and inventiveness his surprisingly modern views on the U.
Congress "Reader, suppose you were an idiot. And suppose you were a member of Congress. But I repeat myself" ; on dentists "He was gray and venerable. I remember father's saying he had never seen business so brisk. Cadaver drew a long sigh. He also shrewdly observes human contraptions as various as Swiss music boxes, American cigars, and missionaries in China, never excluding himself from the fun: "We also discussed ourselves and our points of resemblance to other kinds of fools.
The title offers little assistance or guidance for the potential reader to fall back on Essays culled from the Twain archives but they seem to offer little new to the corpus of already available Twain writings. Certainly the editors of this slender item had something in mind: there is a lengthy introduction.
However, it begs the question of why does the world need another printed work of Twain's vast writings? Be wary of this one, unless you are a confirmed Twain-a-holic. I am a great fan of Mark Twain and thoroughly enjoyed the writings and rewritings of his insatiable humor. A great book for both students and those who enjoy the author. From the large box of Posthumous Stuff " I did a grist of writing here this summer, but not for publication soon - if ever.
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I've got stacks of Literary Remains piled up there. I imagine it's difficult for all inclusions in an anthology, whether by one author or several, to be universally pleasing to any one reader. At least, I've never come across such a book. Here, the author's twenty-four "literary remains" run the gamut from one star to, say, four and a half. To my mind, the former includes "Professor Mahaffy on Equality" and "I Rise to the Question of Privilege" - all of which verge on turgidity.
Happily, the 1, 2 and 3-star contributions are more than balanced by writings that serve to remind the Samuel Clemens fan of the humor and perspicacity which so characterizes his more well-known works. Who among us could not relate? In "On Postage Rates on Authors' Manuscripts", the author takes aim at ridiculous government regulatory policies - always easy game because they're so widespread.
In "Interviewing the Interviewer", Mark takes a wickedly irreverent stab at his own profession, an endearing exercise for any professional.
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